PJ love!

Hello students!

All my Engineering friends were die hard PJ lovers, creators and propagators! This article start is dedicated to them!! O Gosh! By equating Para Jumbles with Poor Jokes,I guess I just started with a PJ 🙂 #Elated!

One of the best I heard few days back was this one!

A spoon of curd before we start!

She: Kya kar rahe ho?

He: Daahi jamaa raha hu

She: Kab tak jamaoge?

He: Agar tum mil jao to jamana chor denge hum.

<Facepalm —– emotion changed to —— Giggles :D>

Alright! Sorry!! Time to come back! Welcome to the world of Para Jumbles! 

Let me first set the objective of this article:

“The idea is to fall in love with the concept of Para Jumbles – to build PJ Love!”

Am writing this article in a colloquial style! Take a deep breath in and get ready to soak this verbal reasoning love.

  1. What are Para Jumbles?

Answer: Para Jumbles are jumbled paragraphs. Basically, you are given a paragraph – but the sentences are not in the right order. It’s up to you to untie this knot and rearrange the sentences so that they logically make sense.

Pointer 1: Understand the types: (A,B…are sentences…): There are no options in such questions. Questions are usually of these 4 types.

  1. Arrange some given sentences to form a paragraph. Like: ABCDE

2. Starting sentence given: Like 1BCAD

3. Ending sentence given: Like BDCAE6

4. Starting and Ending sentence given: Like 1BCDA6

Pointer 2: Start with an introduction to the theme/topic – Macro-concept or macro-views should come first – then the details (examples, exceptions etc.) and finally the conclusion. This is the ideal flow. It is not necessary all these are present in a given question, but overall the logical flow is such.

Pointer 3: The ideal order of chronology should be – Past, then present and then future. If all events are in any one tense, then in the order of occurrence of events – Flash back is not an ideal option for Para Jumbles.

Pointer 4: Concluding sentences are not necessary – Some paragraphs might move towards a conclusion. When the sense of conclusion is present; statements with concluding words like “thus”, “therefore”, “hence” etc. suggestion a tone of conclusion and can be the ending sentence.

Pointer 5: Pronouns serve as very important referencing words. If a pronoun is referring to someone or something which is introduced in some other sentence, then that sentence should ideally come before this one. Pronouns help us in identifying links.

For example:

  1. Rahul Dravid was a great Indian batsman.
  2. He was extraordinary on green pitches in New Zealand as well.

2 should come after 1 as “He” refers to “Rahul Dravid”. Giving basic examples – just to make the point!

Pointer 6: The definite article, “THE” is used to refer to something or someone specific – Hence if the referencing thing is present in some other sentence, that sentence has a chance of coming before this one. “The” is a crucial link former in CAT Para Jumbles. This is precursor sentence finding!

Giving a simple example:

  1. The school is in Mumbai.
  2. Sachin studied at Vilasam highschool.

Here 2 should come before 1. “The” refers to Vilasam which is mentioned in 2.

Pointer 7: The connecting words like, “and”, “but”, “unless”, “if” etc. indicate the presence of some link. In such cases one must be very careful in judging the correct combination of clauses. Remember conjunctions? Those little birds which connect dependent/independent clauses? Just remembering sentence formation classes 😉

Pointer 8: Ending sentence normally has the following parts – concluding words/sense, exceptions or examples for a concept etc.

Pointer 9: Rhetorical or overview questions normally come either at the beginning or at the end. What are rhetorical questions? – those used for expression purposes! Basically any comments, expressions all go out of argument – so at the beginning or the end depending on the case.

Pointer 10: If a sentence ends with a word or phrase and another one begins with the same word or phrase, normally the beginning one will follow the ending one. Same word or phrase is not necessary – I call this one the “continuity of thought”. Let me take some examples here!

Ex 10.1)

  1. Students of this class are excellent.
  2. Excellent is an understatement.

See, continuity of thought through the word “excellent”.

Ex 10.2)

  1. I want you to study all three sections everyday.
  2. VA can come in the morning, DILR in the noon and QA in the evening.

See, “three sections” and then ” talk about each” – so the continuity of thought/logic is important.

Pointer 11: Link formation: This is one of the most important skills that you need to develop to crack PJs. Sharing different logic that work in link formation.

Links give us the connecting flow from sentence to another!

Link concept 1: Order link: Order means checking which sentences should come before the other. So, if some chronological or sequential logic tells you that A should come before C, then it can be AC or ABC etc.

Link concept 2: Connecting link : Connection means checking which sentences should come together. Kind of sub group formation. So, if  sentence A and C talk about how a student prepares for CAT at home while the other two talk about how the student prepares at Bfactory; the subgroups should be formed – AC should come together, BD together. Note: here we are talking about connection – order is different – order is about CA or AC.

When both order and connection are known, you get a complete link – Connecting order link – I call them!

Link concept 3: Immediate link : This is about looking for the immediate next or the immediate previous sentence. Suppose the question has sentence 1 given as fixed – now in such a case, it is wise to look for what will come after 1 – such logic helps us move up and down the PJ order. Or lets say, you are able to identify that C should be the starting sentence as it introduces the theme and the subject – now you should look for what after C. This one is important too!

Woah! Lots of reading I guess for you pals till now! I hope 11 pointers are there in mind always! Now, let’s kill some PJs together! Before we start solving, one word of caution:

> Do not be overconfident in PJs. Move with a bit of caution – but learn to move to closure – attempt when sure else leave!

QUESTION NUMBER 1 – CAT 2018

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

  1. The woodland’s canopy receives most of the sunlight that falls on the trees.
  2. Swifts do not confine themselves to woodlands, but hunt wherever there are insects in the air.
  3. With their streamlined bodies, swifts are agile flyers, ideally adapted to twisting and turning through the air as they chase flying insects – the creatures that form their staple diet.
  4. Hundreds of thousands of insects fly in the sunshine up above the canopy, some falling prey to swifts and swallows

Solution: 

“the sunshine above the canopy” in 4 Refers to woodland’s canopy mentioned in 1 which receives sunlight that falls on the trees. Hence 14 is a link.14 will come in the beginning as it introduces canopy, trees and insects – then brings swifts into picture. <knock knock! Connecting order link identified and starting sentence concept used>

Now the question remains, 23 or 32. You can also think 14 then 2 or 14 then 3. These need to be checked with caution.

Checking: 1432 or 1423. 

143 completes the logic behind canopy => trees => catching insects, then 2 fits as it talks about not just confining to woods. Hence 1432.

> See, what I did here! I did not choose one sequence just by first cut logic application – I created options, proceeded with caution and then chose the final one. This is important in PJs without option.

QUESTION NUMBER 2 – CAT 2017

The five sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of five numbers as your answer.

  1. The implications of retelling of Indian stories, hence, takes on new meaning in a modern India.
    2. The stories we tell reflect the world around us.
    3. We cannot help but retell the stories that we value – after all, they are never quite right for us – in our time.
    4. And even if we manage to get them quite right, they are only right for us – other people living around us will have different reasons for telling similar stories.
    5. As soon as we capture a story, the world we were trying to capture has changed.

Solution: 

25 is the start => Reason: First talk about stories and the world they reflect, then talk about the fact that how the world changes. Then talk about retelling stories.. <Starting logic applied here too>

34 follows next => Reason: Look at the continuity of logic -> “never quite right for us” in 3 -> “And even if we manage to get them quite right” in 4.

“hence” in 1 clearly shows its place in the end of the discussion. Implication in Indian case is anyways a stand alone statement and could not have come in between.

So, the correct answer is 25341.

QUESTION NUMBER 3 – CAT 2000

Sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. The first and last sentences are 1 and 6 and are fixed. What be the correct order of the four sentences in between?

  1. Security inks exploit the same principle that causes the vivid and constantly changing colours of a film of oil on water.
  2. When two rays of light meet each other after being reflected from these different surfaces, they have each travelled slightly different distances.
  3. The key is that the light is bouncing off two surfaces, that of the oil and that of the water layer below it.
  4. The distance the two rays travel determines which wavelengths, and hence colours, interfere constructively and look bright.
  5. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, the peaks and troughs of each ray then interfere either constructively, to appear bright, or destructively, to appear dim.
  6. Since the distance the rays travel changes with the angle as you look at the surface, different colours look bright from different viewing angles.

Solution:

Immediate next link – Surfaces should come next. Hence, 1 then 3. Next link => 3 then 2 (talks about these different surfaces)

So we have 132 till now. Now, we can have two options 132456 or 132546. Look for the concluding link => Think of immediate previous link – what before 6? End with 56 or 46? 46 fits as 4 talks about distance traveled and 6 talks about distance changing with angle.

Answer is: 3254

QUESTION NUMBER 4 – Bfactory study material

Arrange these four sentences to form a meaningful paragraph:

  1. On the other hand, women had the vast majority of society’s child rearing because few other options were available to them.
  2. During the feminist revolution of the 1970s, talk of inborn differences in the behaviour of men and women was distinctly unfashionable, even taboo.
  3. Men dominated fields like architecture and engineering, it was argued, because of social, not hormonal, pressures.
  4. Not so long ago, any career-minded researcher would have hesitated to ask such a question.

Solution: 

We start with 42 as it introduces the era of 1970s when talk of men women inborn difference was not fashionable. Concept of Starting Sentence again!

31 explains men and women side of things next.

Answer is 4231

QUESTION NUMBER 5 – CAT 2018

The four sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a number. Decide on the proper sequence of order of the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer:

  1. Impartiality and objectivity are fiendishly difficult concepts that can cause all sorts of injustices even if transparently implemented.
  2. It encourages us into bubbles of people we know and like, while blinding us to different perspectives, but the deeper problem of ‘transparency’ lies in the words “…and much more”.
  3. Twitter’s website says that “tweets you are likely to care about most will show up first in your timeline…based on accounts you interact with most, tweets you engage with, and much more.”
  4. We are only told some of the basic principles, and we can’t see the algorithm itself, making it hard for citizens to analyse the system sensibly or fairly or be convinced of its impartiality and objectivity.

Solution: 

32 is direct – Twitter’s website – connects with It encourages in 2. 4 follows.

3241 and 1324 pop up as two options for me with 1 either in the beginning or the end. Now, if you look at 2, it talks about problem of transparency, hence 1 should come before 2 – just order checked. Hence, 1324 is the answer

So, pals! This was some dive into PJs. Keep flirting with them, but with caution. You will eventually learn to love them!

Will be sharing many many many PJs and RCs on this blog! Stay tuned!

Best wishes for CAT

Rahul Anand

Trainer, Bfactory

(Just in, do click: https://www.scoopearth.com/bfactory-an-ocean-of-academic-excellence/ )

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