PARA SUMMARY

PARA SUMMARY is an important part of CAT Verbal Ability section. Generally, 1- 2 questions are expected to feature from this topic. Here is a set of 5 questions from this topic for you to learn in the final week before CAT.

1.

Until a hundred years ago, as humans, we had a simple, uncomplicated biological connect. It was a straightforward equation: we drew roughly 3000 calories each of energy out of the Earth for our food and life’s sustenance. Today that number per capita has grown to 100000 calories. We still need only 3000 calories each to nourish life itself. All the rest of this energy is what we extract from the Earth for everything else besides keeping ourselves alive. It is possible to understand our ecological footprint and its disastrous consequences, not merely in terms of our own behavior as consumers, but really in terms of the impact on the environment we make.

a. The callous waste of energy by humans has resulted in disastrous effects on the environment.

b. In the past humans consumed less energy to stay alive.

c. The more energy we consume, the more we become greedy.

d. Humans, as energy consumers have damaged the ecological balance of the universe.

 

2.

The government reportedly has a blueprint for labour reforms and wants to swiftly implement worker-friendly laws. Apparently, the government wants to put on hold laws that are perceived to go against the interest of workers. Even the ruling party’s trade unions will oppose such reforms and their implementation would be fraught in an election year. Political circumstances will allow the rollout of holistic labour reforms only after the general elections, which are a year away. Labour must be aligned with the dynamics of growth in a globalised economy. Indeed, it should protect workers, but should also give more flexibility to employers to adjust to market needs.

a. The government’s blue print of labour reforms faces resistance from its own trade union.

b. Holistic labour reforms are not possible in an election year.

c. The government policies should support labour reforms for the development of a globalised economy.

d .Realising the importance of labour in a globalised economy, the Indian government’s draft for labour reforms might have to wait before it can be implemented, due to the political compulsions of an  election year.

3.

India remains a state inhabited by a large majority of illiterates. The population explosion and poverty combined with inadequate resources and efforts have all combined to perpetuate the problem. The political process continues to be predominated by illiterate masses who are exploited by literate and neo-literate leaders. Even many political leaders have a vested interest in perpetuating illiteracy and public ignorance because they use them as their vote bank and as a means for maintaining their leadership. The faulty system of education has further compounded the evils of illiteracy. Even the literates have failed to keep away from casteism, communalism, factionalism, regionalism, indiscipline and corruption. Politics in India continues to operate in an environment of illiteracy and ignorance.

a. Illiteracy is the root of all evils in the Indian political field. It is caused by poverty and a rapid increase in population. The selfish agenda of political parties also contribute to the crisis.

b. The nefarious role of politicians in perpetuating a state of ignorance to suit their own selfish goals has added to the complex nature of the problem of illiteracy in India.

c. The political system of India encourages illiteracy. For their vested interest and vote banks, politicians neglect the development of a proper education system.

d. Poverty, population explosion and corrupt politician are the factors that lead to illiteracy in India. The faulty education system also contributes to keep Indians away from knowledge this creates a very unique environment for inefficiencies to creep into our political system.

The trend of urbanization, in the modern age, turns the remote village to city. The forests and other natural wealth are destroyed to pave way for the establishment of industries. As a result smoke consisting of harmful carbon dioxide gas coming from chimneys and blast furnaces of the factories, from the domestic ovens and form the automobiles. Violent noise and sounds are produced by the cars and giant machines. The nuisance of the city and sewage make the water of the river as well as sea polluted.

a. Transformation of villages into cities, in the modern age is accompanied by a huge increase in air, noise and water pollution.

b. When forests are destroyed for industrial expansion, emissions of harmful gases pollute the air.

c. The case of noise pollution caused by cars and giant machines in hazardous to health.

d. In the modern age of development and industrialization, there is a great threat of unhygienic and contaminated drinking water supplied to city dwells.

 

5.

Many people who have come close to death from drowning, cardiac arrest or other causes have described near-death experiences–profound, subjective events that sometimes result in dramatic changes in values, beliefs, behavior, and attitudes toward life and death. These experiences often include a new clarity of thinking, a feeling of well being, a sense of being out of the body, and visions of bright light or mystical encounters. Such experiences have been reported by an estimated 30 to 40 percent of hospital patients who were revived after coming close to death and about 5 percent of adult Americans in a nationwide poll.

a. People who have near death experiences develop a clear thinking a feeling of well being, an out of body experience and visions of bright light.

b. Near – death experiences opens up new self realization in people. This includes clear thought, a sense of well – being and an out of body experience too.

c. Nearly 30 to 40 % of hospital patients have shared their common near –death experiences and all of them have had psychological and mystical encounters transforming their lives.

d. Near – death experiences reported by hospital patients display a dramatic change of values, behavior and  attitude leading them to become more philosophical and spiritual



Solutions

Ans –1- a)

The passage talks about how human greed has led to higher consumption of energy from the earth for food and sustenance of life. This has proved to be disastrous on the environment.

Option b), c) and d) are narrow scope answer choices, as they state only a part of the gist.

Option a) is the correct answer, as it summarises the essence of the paragraph.


Ans – 2-d)

The passage highlights the importance of labour in a globalised economy. It then talks about how implementing labour reforms would be difficult for the Indian government, facing the political compulsion of an election year.

Option a), b) and c) state only a part, but not the entire argument of the passage. Hence all are ruled out.

Option d) gives a gist of the passage, hence it is the right answer.


Ans – 3- b)

The passage states the complex plight of illiteracy in Indian. It describes how the politicians perpetuate the state of ignorance amongst the masses by denying them to become literate, to suit their own selfish motives.

Option b) sums up the essence of the passage. Hence it is the correct answer.

The other options talks about a part, and not the whole argument. Hence they are eliminated.


Ans –4- a)

The passage describes how urbanization of villages into cities leads to mass industrialization causing great increase in air, noise and water pollution.

Option (a) expresses the main argument of the passage. Hence, it is the correct answer.

Option b) and d) are narrow scope, hence both can be ruled out.

Option c) is not mentioned, hence it can be eliminated.


Ans –5- b)

The passage highlights the experience faced by people who come close to death and survive. It talks about how near-death experiences leads to new self-realization in people, giving them clear thought, a sense of well being and an out of body experience.

Option b) states the main essence of the paragraph, in a succinct manner. Hence, it is the right answer.

Option a), c) and d) state only a part and not the entire summary. Hence, they can be ruled out.

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